The ADDIE model is a process used by training developers and instructional designers to plan and create effective learning experiences. | Image Source: Water Bear Learning
This two-part feature article seeks to orient the reader on the classic instructional design model known as ADDIE. The acronym stands for Analysis-Design-Development-Implementation-Evaluation. Part 1 has expounded on ADD; this Part 2 completes the feature with IE.
Implementing a course involves training the instructor, preparing the learners, and arranging the learning space. As a best practice, the developers who designed the course usually teach it as well. However, this does not prevent developers to delegate that role to a different trainer. Furthermore, a developer trains the instructor to facilitate a course in many different areas.
Preparing the learners entails all learning materials and necessary equipment for the attendees: Powerpoint, markers, whiteboard, handouts, devices, and so on. The multimedia equipment must also be tested beforehand in the actual learning space. This spares the trainer from technical difficulties.
After setting everything up, the trainer can fully concentrate on running the course and providing a quality session or learning experience for the participants.
But it does not stop there. Later, the instructor must evaluate how the training went.
There are two ways to evaluate a course: formative and summative. The key difference is that formative is used during the program, while summative is used after the program.
A. Formative evaluation
In this approach, instructors and training specialists evaluate the learning materials as they go through each part of the ADDIE model.
Dick and Carey suggest the following models for formative evaluation:
B. Summative Evaluation
While the formative approach provides ongoing feedback, the summative approach assesses the instruction’s worth after it is completed.
According to Kirkpatrick’s model, there are four types of outcomes to evaluate: reaction, learning, behavior, and results.
- This is the easiest to do. The trainer simply writes a series of statements, which the students then indicate whether they strongly agree or disagree. Below is an example from a basketball training camp.
- Open-ended questions reveal a course’s overall strengths and weaknesses. It is also best to make the feedback or survey anonymous. This encourages the learners to truly express their attitudes without fear of judgment or retribution.
- In doing so, this helps the instructors or trainers to know what went well in the course and what can be upgraded.
This is done through a post-test which checks how well the participants achieved the learning objectives. Here are three corresponding examples on how to evaluate their KSAs.
A. Knowledge: achievement tests
B. Skills: performance tests
- Let students practice public speaking skills such as vocal variety, delivery, intonation, inflection and diction. Then evaluate their performance on a rubric constructed beforehand.
C. Attitude: questionnaires
- My job gives me opportunities to develop new skills. (Rate using a five-point scale from strongly disagree to strong agree)
This refers to the transfer of KSAs from the training content to performance setting. For example:
This determines the overall success of the training model by measuring certan factors. For example, in a job setting, the trainer asks:
How did training affect the following?
- Job satisfaction
Another example is assessing how the basketball training affected a player’s confidence, enjoyment and win-loss rates.
By keenly applying formative and summative evaluation, talent development professionals can modify their respective courses for the learners’ benefits.
The ADDIE model involves Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. This enables us to design targeted objectives, appropriate courses and quality content for the learners. It can also be the go-to model whenever we have problems or concerns in designing effective learning programs.
About the Writer
As a learning & development [L&D] professional, Migi is a proud corporate trainer upgrading people’s performance and productivity. He instills in his attendees prized knowledge, skills and abilities or attitudes. Drawing from his wealth of experiences in talent development, he mainly facilitates webinars, workshops, trainings and even voiceovers while occasionally designing programs for his attendees’ professional advancement.
The programs he runs primarily but not limited to include public speaking, business writing, presentation skills, English proficiency, customer service, time and stress management.